After the Cold War ended, Terrorism has changed significantly from politically motivated to ideological extremism, driven by religion and ethno-nationalism. Extremism, as part of the problem has also spreaded globally with the common theme “unstructured chaos” with the goal to co-op or coerce the targeted population to support their extremist ideology by systematically delegitimized the government, create anarchy, and gain control of the targeted population. Violent extremism could, there for, be stated as of the main driving forces of global terrorism.
Globally, violent extremists leveraged technology and communicated their concept of violence to their followers through various media, primarily social media such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc., and use languages tailored for their specific global audiences.
As the result, foreign fighters from around the world, including Muslims from England, France and Europe joined forces with the terrorist group who efficiently utilized extremist concept to fight for the caliphate.